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Ethnologue.com: 54 languages are spoken in Afghanistan ("Ethnologue.com: Languages of Afghanistan") [ID 246]
Very detailed overview about the 54 spoken languages in Afghanistan, each with information on population, region, dialects, alternate names, etc. Bibliography database last modified: July-2002 Publications catalog database last modified: December-2001
Ethnologue.com: Languages of Afghanistan
Afghanistan Online: A Look at the Languages Spoken in Afghanistan ("Afghanistan Online") [ID 247]
Very short article on the two official national languages Pashto and Dari, including alphabet and English-Farsi dictionary
12.2007 - Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
50 percent of the population speaks Dari and 35 percent Pasthu; Turkic languages are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks a Turkic language ("UNHCR's Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Afghan Asylum-Seekers") [ID 22024]
"The official languages are Dari and Pashtu, spoken by 50 percent and 35 percent of the population, respectively. The Constitution stipulates that the Turkic languages (i.e. Uzbeki, Turkmen, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani and Pamiri (Alsana)) are the third official languages in areas where spoken by the majority the population."
15.06.2002 - Source: Institute for War and Peace Reporting
IWPR: Predominant use of Dari in grand assembly criticized by Pashto-speakers ("Language Controversy") [#28904], [ID 249]
"Afghanistan’s language question has been rearing its head at the Loya Jirga. While regulations state that discusions should be in the country's two official languages, Dari and Pashto, most business has been conducted in the former.
This was the case in voting in the Jirga’s first major election - for the post of assembly head - with some delegates complaining they could not follow the proceedings."I didn’t understand the elections and put my paper blank into the voting box," said Asadullah from Oruzgan province.
Yar Khan Wazzer said that not everyone from his home of Paktika could keep up with everything said in Dari, and called for at least key parts of the discussions be translated into Pashto. [...]
Afghanistan’s many different languages are inextricably tied into questions of class and regional and ethnic allegiance.
Traditionally, Dari has been the lingua franca of educated Afghans from all groups. But Pashto is also an official language in recognition of the fact that the Pashtuns are the country’s largest ethnic group.
During Burhannudin Rabbani’s presidency, from 1992 to 1996, Dari was promoted to some extent. Then, when the Taleban came to power they changed everything to Pashto. Some Kabuli residents say they were beaten just for talking Dari in the streets. [...]"
Hazara.net: Language Composition Map Afghanistan ("Hazara.net") [ID 248]